The 21st anniversary of the International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming (Esaform 2018), 23.-25. April 2018, Palermo (Italy)
Cold forming initiates a change of the material properties like flow stress and hardness. Due to work hardening and the accompanied loss of formability some intermediate heat treatment may become necessary in multi-stage forming processes. One possibility to avoid this heat treatment is to adjust the forming characteristics in terms of flow stress and formability by rotary swaging. This process is particularly suitable not only for producing of the target geometry but also for modifying of the material properties during the process and thus, rotary swaging can prepare the parts for further forming, such as extrusion. In this contribution, the process chain “rotary swaging – extrusion” for austenite stainless steel AISI304 was investigated. The forming characteristics of the semi-finished products for the extrusion were influenced by the previous swaging process. The conditioning by changing of the microstructure, the work hardening and the geometry of the processed wires was achieved by the process design. For this purpose, the geometry of the swaging dies, the feeding velocity as well as the process kinematics (eccentric swaging) and a stroke following angle Δϕ were varied. In particular, the novel geometry of the swaging dies with extraordinary sloped faces generated a non-symmetric material flow with severe shear deformation and thus an extreme change of the microstructure. The required forming force of the following extrusion process reflected the range of achievable conditioning. The micro rotary swaging process positively improved the formability of AISI304 by work softening.